A Tree Grows in My Heart ——Sky Song

    When we first talk about the “tree”, which adjective would you use to describe it? Strong, stately or thriving? All of them are the best descriptions for a tree because they give us the general impression of a tree. I recently read “A Tree Grows in Brooklyn”. When I first saw the name of the book, I had no clue that it is a story about how a girl fights for her life and finally wins the battle between her struggles and her fate. I read with a lot of interest and curiosity. I learned so much and was very touched by the book

    The story took place in the beginning of the 20th century in Brooklyn, New York. The main character Francie, was born in a poor family. Her father Johnny loved her very much but he could not carry the many responsibilities and pressures of life, so he became an alcoholic and died young. Francie’s mother Katie had to take care of the whole family on her own. Katie loved Francie’s brother Neeley much more than her daughter. Our heroine grew up in an environment without enough love and care. Francie has a firm faith in her heart and always chases what she desires. Francie won in the fight between her struggles and her fate. She used to be very lonely, disappointed and have all the worries that teenagers have right now. She still chose to chase her dreams and finally became the person she wanted to be.

    My first discussion point is “Growing Up”. The novel told us about Francie’s process of growing up. It showed us how she grew from a lonely little girl to a mature confident young lady. When I was reading “A Tree Grows in Brooklyn”, I realized that I have experienced some similar feelings about things just like Francie. It’s like we were growing up together. Francie felt very lonely because she didn’t know how to communicate with the other kids when she was young. At the same time, she didn’t get enough love and support from her parents. Francie and I are quite similar in this aspect. Everybody knows that I am an international student. None of my family or friends from home are here with me. Although I came to Montreal last year, I still do not feel like a part of a group of Canadian kids. Sometimes I feel really alone! I might not talk much but that does not mean that I don’t want to participate. I know that I am a really cool person because I can survive without my parent’s company and fight for what I want which is just like Francie.

    My next point would be “Education”. Education should be the most important topic for everyone. Katie realized the importance of education, so Francie and Neeley were brought up listening to stories from the “Bible” and Shakespeare. That is why when they spoke to people and thought about things, they seemed more grown up than other kids. Francie was an amazing reader. She spent all of her time alone with her books. The desire to read and learn led her to become the person she wanted to be. I came to Canada to have a different kind of education in order to see and learn more things which I would never get a chance to experience before. Without education, I would never be able to write these things in English. Because of Fancie’s education, she became smarter, confident and successful. I am being educated by two very different cultures and I believe in my heart that I will become the “ideal young lady” someday in the future.

    I still have many points beside these two. Sometimes when I read a certain part of the book, I was so touched that I nearly cried… I know that as a teenager, I am like an explorer of this enormous world. I will face a lot of different challenges in order to gain experience. I am growing with a clear positive direction facing different challenges. Can you guess which living things also grow up this way? Trees! Trees are strong, stately and thriving. I still remember at the end of the story, there was a tree growing in the yard of Francie’s old house. This tree “came back to life” after a serious fire. No one thought it could still come back to life. The tree grew again through the pain firmly and fearlessly. The tree is just like the faith which is stored and grows in Francie’s heart.

    I know this tree does not only grow in Brooklyn, it also grows deep in my heart. It is sprouting firmly and fearlessly.

French Stressed Pronouns – Pronoms disjoints

French Stressed Pronouns – Pronoms disjoints

“What” in French

French learners often have trouble deciding how to translate “what” into French. Should it beque or quoi, or maybe that pesky quel? Understanding the difference between these terms is critical to knowing how to use them correctly.

The problem with translating “what” into French is that it has numerous grammatical functions in English. It can be an interrogative pronoun or adjective, relative pronoun, exclamative adjective, adverb, or object of a preposition, and may be found in any position in a sentence.In contrast, French has different terms for most of these possibilities, including que, qu’est-ce qui, quoi, comment, and quel. In order to know which term to use, you need to understand what function each of them performs.

When asking a question with “what” as either the subject or object, the French equivalent is the interrogative pronoun que.

  1. As the object of a question, que may be followed by either inversion or est-ce que.

    Que veux-tu ? Qu’est-ce que tu veux ?
    What do you want?

    Que regardent-ils ? Qu’est-ce qu’ils regardent ?
    What are they watching?

    Qu’est-ce que c’est (que ça) ?
    What is it/that?

  1. When que is the subject, it must be followed by est-ce qui. (Don’t let that qui fool you into thinking this means “who”; in this type of construction, qui is simply acting as a relative pronoun with no actual meaning of its own.)

    Qu’est-ce qui se passe ?
    What’s happening?

    Qu’est-ce qui a fait ce bruit ?
    What made that noise?

To ask a question in which “what” comes after the verb, use quoi. Note that this is an informal construction:

  • Tu veux quoi ?
    You want what?

    C’est quoi, ça ? Ça c’est quoi ?
    What’s that? (Literally, That’s what?)

When “what” joins two clauses, it is an indefinite relative pronoun.

  1. If “what” is the subject of the relative clause, use ce qui (again, this doesn’t mean “who”):

    Je me demande ce qui va se passer.
    I wonder what’s going to happen.

    Tout ce qui brille n’est pas or.
    All that glitters is not gold.

  1. When “what” is the object, use ce que:

    Dis-moi ce que tu veux.
    Tell me what you want.

    Je ne sais pas ce qu’elle a dit.
    I don’t know what she said.

When “what” precedes or otherwise modifies a noun, you need to use quel (which literally means “which”), and can be either an interrogative adjective or an exclamative adjective:

  • Quel livre veux-tu ? Quel livre est-ce que tu veux ?
    What (which) book do you want?

    À quelle heure vas-tu partir ?
    (At) What time are you going to leave?

    Quelles sont les meilleures idées ?
    What (which) are the best ideas?

    Quel livre intéressant !
    What an interesting book!

    Quelle bonne idée !
    What a good idea!

Prepositions: Then What?

When “what” follows a preposition, you usually need quoi in French.

  1. In a simple question, use quoi followed by either inversion or est-ce que.

    De quoi parlez-vous ? De quoi est-ce que vous parlez ?
    What are you talking about?

    Sur quoi tire-t-il ? Sur quoi est-ce qu’il tire ?
    What is he shooting at?

  2. In a question or statement with a relative clause, use quoi + subject + verb.

    Sais-tu à quoi il pense ?
    Do you know what he’s thinking about?

    Je me demande avec quoi c’est écrit.
    I wonder what it’s written with.

    a) When a verb or expression requires de, use ce dont:

    C’est ce dont j’ai besoin. (J’ai besoin de…)
    That’s what I need.

    Je ne sais pas ce dont elle parle. (Elle parle de…)
    I don’t know what she’s talking about.

    b) When à is the preposition and it is placed either at the beginning of a clause or after c’est, use ce à quoi:

    Ce à quoi je m’attends, c’est une invitation.
    What I’m waiting for is an invitation.

    C’est ce à quoi Chantal rêve.
    That’s what Chantal dreams about.

And finally, when you didn’t hear or didn’t understand what someone just said and you’d like them to repeat it, use the interrogative adverb comment, which is considered nicer than saying quoi (the only reason I’ve ever heard for this is the latter sounds like a duck quacking.)

If any of these uses don’t make sense to you, take a look at the linked lessons for more detail and examples.

古典音乐家

不朽作曲家 (第一挡)  

1.巴赫      1685~1750 巴洛克   德国

2.莫扎特    1765~1791 古典     德国

3.贝多芬    1770~1827 古典     德国

半人半神的作曲家 (第二档)  

4.瓦格纳    1813~1883 浪漫    德国

5.海顿      1732~1809 古典    德国

6.勃拉姆斯 1833~1897 浪漫    德国

7.舒伯特    1797~1828 古典/浪漫 德国

8.舒曼      1810~1856 浪漫    德国

9.亨德尔    1685~1759 巴洛克   德国

10.柴科夫斯基 1840~1893 浪漫 俄罗斯

天才作曲家 (第三档)    

11.门德尔松 1809~1847 浪漫    德国

12.德沃夏克 1841~1904 浪漫    捷克

13.李斯特    1811~1886 浪漫    匈牙利

14.肖邦      1810~1849 浪漫    波兰

15.斯特拉文斯基 1882~1971 20世纪    俄罗斯

16.威尔第        1813~1901 浪漫    意大利

17.马勒       1860~1911 浪漫    德国

18.普罗科菲耶夫 1891~1953 20世纪    俄罗斯

19.肖斯塔科维奇 1906~1975 21世纪    俄罗斯

20.理查-斯特劳斯 1864~1949 浪漫    德国

超群作曲家 (第四档)    

21.柏辽兹      1803~1869 浪漫    法国

22.德彪西      1862~1918 20世纪    法国

23.普契尼      1858~1924 浪漫    意大利

24.帕莱斯特里纳 1525~1594 文艺复兴    意大利

25.布鲁克纳    1824~1896 浪漫    德国

26.泰勒曼       1681~1767 巴洛克    德国

27.圣-桑      1835~1921 浪漫    法国

28.西贝柳斯    1865~1957 20世纪    芬兰

29.拉威尔      1875~1937 20世纪    法国

30.罗西尼      1792~1868 浪漫    意大利

31.格里格      1843~1907 浪漫    挪威

32.格鲁克      1714~1787 后巴洛克 德国

33.亨德密特    1895~1963 20世纪    德国

34.蒙特威尔第 1567~1643 巴洛克    意大利

35.巴托克      1881~1945 20世纪    匈牙利

36.弗郎克      1822~1890 浪漫    法国

37.维瓦尔第    1678~1741 巴洛克    意大利

38.比才        1838~1875 浪漫    法国

39.穆索尔斯基 1839~1881 浪漫    俄罗斯

40.拉摩      1683~1764 巴洛克    法国

41.福莱      1845~1924 浪漫    法国

42.里姆斯基-可萨科夫 1844~1908 浪漫    俄罗斯

43.多尼采第 1797~1848 浪漫    意大利

44.沃恩.威廉斯 1872~1958 20世纪    英国

45.斯美塔纳    1824~1884 浪漫    捷克

46.约翰-施特劳斯   1825~1899 浪漫    奥地利

47.韦伯      1786~1826 前浪漫时期     德国

48.亚那切克   1854~1928 20世纪    捷克

49.库普兰     1668~1733 巴洛克    法国

50.鲍罗丁     1833~1887 浪漫    俄罗斯

1.巴赫——西方艺术的巨人

2.莫扎特——最杰出的天赋音乐奇才

3.贝多芬——强烈而激情的不朽咆哮者

4.瓦格纳——最伟大的戏剧作曲家

5.海顿——近乎不朽的交响曲和弦乐四重奏之父

6.勃拉姆斯——最纯正的浪漫主义交响曲和最顶尖的德国艺术歌曲作曲家

7.舒伯特——古典、浪漫主义的钢琴和旋律的抒情天才,德国歌曲之王

8.舒曼——浪漫主义的化身,歌曲、钢琴曲和交响乐的诗一般的大师

9.亨德尔——巴洛克旋律专家,清唱剧天才

10.柴科夫斯基——俄罗斯卓越作曲,旋律大师

11.门德尔松——浪漫主义神童,优美、典雅的钢琴曲和交响曲作家

12.德沃夏克——在3位列入排行榜中居首位的捷克人,旋律家

13.李斯特——最优秀的钢琴家,交响诗的发明人

14.肖邦——钢琴之王、钢琴诗人

15.斯特拉文斯基——20世纪最优秀的作曲家,先锋派领头人

16.威尔第——最受爱戴的歌剧作曲家

17.马勒——9首交响曲和歌曲作者

18.普罗科菲耶夫——20世纪不协和音的俄罗斯人

19.肖斯塔科维奇——苏维埃头号作曲家

20.理查.施特劳斯——“新音乐”的先驱,9首著名交响诗的作者

21.柏辽兹——急进的浪漫主义者,交响曲标题专家

22.德彪西——第一位印象派作曲家,歌曲、钢琴和管弦乐作品

23.普契尼——威尔第以后的意大利歌剧大师

24.帕莱斯特里纳——文艺复兴时期天主教教堂音乐大师

25.布鲁克纳——维也纳7位交响曲作曲家中的第6位

26.泰勒曼——巴洛克时期有3000部作品的大师

27.圣.桑——法国极具魅力的歌剧和交响诗作者

28.西贝柳斯——最早的芬兰作曲家,不仅是民族主义者

29.拉威尔——优雅而严谨的法国人,通常与印象派德彪西合作

30.罗西尼——威尔第前与多尼采第同为意大利歌剧大师

31.格里格——挪威头号作曲家、民族主义者

32.格鲁克——后巴洛克、古典主义歌剧改革家

33.亨德密特——20世纪5位“新音乐”不协和音作曲家之一

34.蒙特威尔第——巴洛克时期和声学的“现代主义者”、第一位歌剧作曲家

35.巴托克——匈牙利20世纪不协和音作曲家

36.弗朗克——和蔼、心灵美,歌曲、清唱剧、交响曲等的作者

37.维瓦尔第——巴洛克时期小提琴多产作曲家

38.比才——《卡门》等少数几部作品的作者

39.穆索尔斯基——最彻底的民族主义和最无畏的俄罗斯民族主义者

40.拉摩——法国早期头号拨弦古钢琴天才、理论家和歌剧专家

41.福雷——怡人的法国歌曲和室内乐作者

42.里姆斯基-科萨科夫——俄罗斯民族主义者中最有艺术素养的人

43.多尼采第——威尔第之前意大利歌剧界中仅次于罗西尼的人

44沃恩.威廉斯——20世纪英国民族主义者

45.斯美塔纳——捷克民族主义音乐的奠基人

46.约翰.施特劳斯——圆舞曲之王

47.韦伯——第一位真正的浪漫主义者,联接格鲁克和瓦格纳的德国歌剧作曲家

48.亚那切克——20世纪捷克人,3位入捷克人中最有现代色彩者

49.库普兰——法国巴洛克时期拨弦古钢琴大师

50.鲍罗丁——音调优美的俄罗斯民族主义者